September 22, 2022
Bone & Joint Screen 骨和关节检查


Calcium is present in plasma in three forms, ionised, complexed and protein bound. Only ionised calcium can be used by the body in vital processes like muscular contraction, cardiac function, transmission of nerve impulses and blood clotting. About 98-99% of the body’s calcium is present in the skeleton and teeth. This test measures the concentration of total and ionised calcium in the blood to reflect parathyroid function, calcium metabolism and malignant activity.


Use of Test:

Diagnosis of hypercalcaemia and hypocalcaemia.




Most of the phosphorus in the blood exists as phosphates or esters. Phosphate is required for generation of body tissues and functions in the metabolism of glucose and lipids, in the maintenance of acid-base balance, and in the storage and transfer of energy from one site in the body to another. Increased phosphate levels are most commonly found in response to low parathyroid hormone levels and in renal failure.

Decreased levels occur in primary hyperparathyroidism and other conditions.


Use of Test:

Evaluation of patients with renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, metabolic bone disease.



Uric Acid

Uric acid and its salts are end-products of purine metabolism. The uric acid level in the blood is a balance between its synthesis and elimination. Gout is most often associated with a raised blood uric acid level. However, asymptomatic hyperuricaemia can occur, and a variety of conditions can also raise the blood level (eg increased tissue breakdown, medications such as thiazides and barbiturates, alcohol consumption, renal failure, sarcoidosis, etc).


Use of Test:

Diagnosis and monitoring treatment of gout.



Rheumatoid Factor

The blood of many people with rheumatoid arthritis contain rheumatoid factors which are antigammaglobulin antibodies. RF is sometimes found in blood serum from patients with other diseases, even though RF incidence and values are higher in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.


Use of Test:

Diagnosis and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Also positive in other chronic inflammatory conditions and immune complex diseases.



C-Reactive Protein (CRP)

CRP is a special protein that appears rapidly in the blood and body fluids during any inflammatory process. Blood serum CRP can be detected within 18 to 24 hours after the onset of tissue damage. Elevation indicates acute phase response or acute phase disease in chronic inflammatory disorders.


Use of Test:

Assessment of acute phase reaction in inflammatory, infective and neoplastic disorders; monitoring disease activity, especially in inflammatory arthritis.