September 23, 2022
Urinalysis (Dipstick) 尿液分析(试纸法)

Urine pH

Urine pH is an indicator of the ability of renal tubules to maintain normal hydrogen ion concentration in the plasma and extracellular fluid. Inability to acidify urine may indicate distal renal tubular acidosis. Diet, medication, renal disease and certain metabolic disorders may affect urinary pH.


Use of Test: Check for successful therapeutic acidification or alkalinisation.



Urine Protein

In a healthy renal and urinary tract system, the urine contains no protein or only a slight trace amount of protein. One-third of normal urine protein is albumin. The persistent presence of protein in the urine is the single most important indication of renal disease.


Use of Test: Suspected nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, urinary tract inflammation.



Urine Glucose

Sugar may be present in the urine (glycosuria or glucosuria) when the blood glucose level exceeds the reabsorption capacity of renal tubules. Heavy meal, emotional stress or a low tubular reabsorption rate in some persons may account for glycosuria in the presence of normal blood



Urine Ketones

Ketones are formed in the liver from the metabolism of fatty acid and fat. The excess presence of ketones (ketonuria) in the urine is associated with diabetes or altered carbohydrate metabolism.


Use of Test: Diabetic ketoacidosis, starvation ketosis.



Urine Blood

The presence of blood in urine may be due to red blood cells from inflammation, trauma or tumour of the renal tract. In the female vaginal blood may contaminate ordinary voided urine specimens.


Use of Test: One of the early indicators of possible renal or urinary tract disease.



Urine Bilirubin

Urine bilirubin aids in the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment for hepatitis and liver dysfunction. It is an early sign of hepatocellular disease or intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary obstruction.


Use of Test: Differential diagnosis of jaundice.



Urine Urobilinogen

Urine urobilinogen is increased in haemolysis. It is unreliable as a guide to liver disease.


Use of Test: Evaluation of liver disease



Urine Nitrite

It is positive in most bacterial urinary tract infections. Negative in urinary tract infections caused by Gram-positive organisms or Pseudomonas species. A negative result should never be interpreted as indicating absence of bacteriuria.


Use of Test: Screening test for urinary tract infection. Result must be confirmed by urine culture.




Use of Test: Investigation of renal and urinary tract disease and renal involvement in systemic



Urine Red Blood Cell (RBC)

In health, RBCs occasionally appear in the urine. Presence of persistent RBCs in urine may be associated with stone, renal disease, tumour, trauma, infections and other conditions including bleeding and clotting disorders. Possible presence of menstrual blood, vaginal bleeding or trauma to perineal area in the female patient should be ruled out.



Urine White Blood Cell (WBC)

Leukocytes (WBCs) may originate anywhere in the genitourinary tract. High counts of leukocytes can be seen in infection of urinary tract and other renal disease. In females, precautions should be taken to avoid artifactual increases in urine WBCs from contamination by vaginal or labial secretions. Culture of urine can be performed to confirm urinary tract infection.



Urine Epithelial Cells

Squamous epithelial cells are common in normal urine samples. They are useful as an index of possible contamination by vaginal secretions in females or by foreskin in uncircumcised males.



Urine Casts

Casts are protein conglomerates that outline the shape of the renal tubules in which they are formed. Fatty casts, RBC casts, white cell casts and mixed cell casts may indicate renal disease. The presence of granular and/or hyaline casts, as an isolated finding, is of uncertain clinical significance. They may be seen in patients with dehydration.



Urine Crystals

A variety of crystals may appear in the urine. The type and quantity of crystalline precipitates vary with the pH of the urine. Although they are seen frequently, they are not usually of any clinical significance. They may, however, be a clue to stone formation and certain metabolic diseases.